Arkansas State University. (2015). The Impact of Conscious Discipline Training on Adult Perception, Knowledge and Skills.

Intro brief: Arkansas State University conducted a pilot study of over 800 individuals in 2014, examining the impact of Conscious Discipline on 1) student self-control, initiative, relationships and resiliency, 2) school readiness, and 3) adult perceptions and responses. Significant positive effects were seen in all three domains.

Type of report: Research report, descriptive non-experimental pre-/post-test


Student Outcomes

In 2014, Arkansas State University examined self-control, initiative, relationships and the resiliency of 486 students across 22 Pre-K sites. Sites receiving Conscious Discipline training showed a 21-22% increase in self-control (the ability to express and manage behaviors in a healthy way). They also showed a 31-32% increase in initiative (the ability to use independent thoughts and actions to meet one’s own needs), a 24-27% increase in the ability to promote and maintain positive connections with other children and adults, a 31-33% increase in resiliency, and a 3-11% decrease in behavioral concerns.

School Readiness

Using the Florida Assessment for Readiness Success (FLKRS) and the Early Childhood Observation System for Social-Emotional Development (ECHOS), researchers found that 66% of children exposed to Conscious Discipline (N=949) were considered “kindergarten ready” compared to 53% of those not exposed to Conscious Discipline (N=6133). Using the FLKRS and Florida Assessment for Instruction in Reading (FAIR), 81% of children exposed to Conscious Discipline were rated as having at least an 85% probability of reading success, compared to 51% of children without Conscious Discipline.

Adult Perceptions and Responses

Using pre-test and post-test surveys for 359 teachers trained in Conscious Discipline, researchers found that teachers who had a positive disposition towards the impact of Conscious Discipline on student behavior continued to increase their positive perspective as their knowledge of Conscious Discipline increased. Teachers who began with a negative disposition experienced a decrease in this negative disposition as their knowledge of Conscious Discipline increased.

Researchers also found that adults showed a significant positive shift towards using Conscious Discipline in response to conflict after training.

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